Substitution of NMP

Substitution of N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidon (NMP)

© Fraunhofer IPMS
Cleaning procedure of a 300 mm silicon wafer in the cleanroom.

N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) has proven to be an essential material for lift-off processes and resist removal in cleanroom semiconductor manufacturing. This chemical enables precise structuring of thin films and cleaning of surfaces, which is particularly important to ensure the quality and performance of semiconductor devices

As of 2018, NMP has been included in Annex XVII of the REACh Regulation due to its reproductive toxicity and irritant effect on eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Since May 2020, consumer products with an NMP content of 0.3% or more have been banned in the EU.

At Fraunhofer IPMS, we focus on the development of processes using safer products. Our research aims to identify and investigate substitutes for NMP.


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For the semiconductor industry, we provide a comprehensive range of investigated areas to optimize your microelectronic processes. Our focus is on resource-optimized processes, the creation of an energy-efficient cleanroom environment and the reduction of harmful exhaust emissions. A central aspect of our work is the optimization of individual processes with regard to energy consumption as well as the implementation of green packaging and the replacement of critical materials such as CMR and/or PFAS.

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