Analytical Services & Metrology

Analytics & Metrology

Analytical Services

Our in-line metrology enables us to determine physical and chemical properties of structures on 300 mm wafer with X-ray diffraction, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectral ellipsometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. All our tools for wafer level analysis are stationed in a class 1000 (class 6 ISO 14644-1) cleanroom environment that meets industrial standards.

A huge number of analysis is aditionally available in the physical failure analysis labs. Our well established staff offers wafer analysis with X-ray (XPS, XRD/XRR, TXRF), electron microscopy (SEM, FIB, EBSD/TKD, TEM, EFTEM) and many more methods (AFM/PFM, FTIR, Raman, chemical). Electrical characterization complements the portfolio of products and services.

X-ray Scattering

X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Reflectometry (Tool: Bruker D8 Discover)

X-ray scattering probes the arrangement of atoms in a sample by utilizing the interference of X-rays scattered at lattice planes or interfaces. It provides information about structural properties (e.g. crystallographic phases, lattice constants, degree of crystallization) and microstructural properties (e.g. grain size, preferred orientation, stress, film thickness, roughness, density). The penetration depth can be varied between a few nm and several μm. The sensitivity is about 1% phase content. The method allows for non-ambient measurements.



  • EPI Layer Characterization
  • Growth Kinetics of HF(Si)O2 Films
  • Texture analysis of tungsten layers showing different CMP behavior
  • Crystallization of TIO2 thin film


X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Phi Quantes Scanning XPS/HAXPES Microprobe

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is a quantitative technique that probes the chemistry of a material. When the X-ray source impinges a sample, electrons are excited by the photoelectric effect. The energies of the photoelectrons ejected are analyzed to obtain information on the chemical state and elemental composition of a sample. We offer a unique lab-based combination of monochromatic X-ray sources: a soft X-ray source (Aluminium Kα) and a high energy X-ray source (HAXPES using Cr Kα) for a wider range of analysis needs. The Cr Kα source offers a wider measurement range and a deeper analysis depth of about 3 times larger than with the Al Kα source.

The X-ray excitation sources‘ beam sizes can be focused between 7 and 200 μm in diameter, giving way to microprobe analysis where points, lines, and mapping areas can be defined. Angle and sputter profiling depth analysis determines material composition across layer stacks or bulk material. Sample imaging using the X-ray sources is possible to create SEM-like images for the analysis of structured and inhomogeneous surfaces. In addition, in-situ XPS temperature dependent measurements can be performed in the range: -120 °C to +300 °C.



  • Dual monochromatic excitation: AlKα and CrKα x-ray sources
  • Unique depth profiling capabilities
  • Define varied analysis areas down to 10s of microns in size
  • Structured sample analysis with the help of x-ray induced secondary electron imaging (SXI)
  • In-situ temperature dependent measurements
  • Determination of chemical composition

Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry


© Fraunhofer IPMS
Time of Flight-SIMS Graph (left) and ToF-SIMS Scheme (right)

In time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), a primary ion beam is used to produce monatomic and polyatomic particles (secondary ions) from the sample surface. The technique used to characterize the surface and sub-surface region of materials based on m/z ratio measurement of ejected particles under ion bombardment. The mass of the emitted ions is analyzed using a mass spectrometer. As the ion beam creates a crater in the sample, the distribution of different species within the sample volume can be recorded. We can achieve a lateral resolution of a few hundred nanometers and a depth resolution of a few monolayers. In order to quantify the absolute concentration of the elements in the sample, it is necessary to compare the analysis results to standards.



  • Analysis of a RRAM stack
  • Diffusion of Si in AL2O3
  • Impact of proton irradiation on the SB distribution in a GE / GE+SB stack

Electron Microscopy

(Tools: Thermo Fisher Apreo S, Hitachi S5000, FEI Tecnai F20)

© Fraunhofer IPMS
EFTEM of copper layer (left) and EFTEM of silicon layer (right)

Electron microscopy uses an electron beam to illuminate a specimen and create a magnified image. Two different types of electron microscopes are available: scanning electron microscopes (SEM, resolution down to ~1 nm) and transmission electron microscopes (TEM, resolution down to 0.1 nm). In SEM the electron beam is scanned over the sample and either the emitted secondary electrons or the back scattered electron are used for imaging the sample surface. In TEM the electron beam is passed through a thin lamella containing the region of interest.

The emerging beam carries information about the structure of the sample that can be evaluated in different ways. There are six different ways we can utilize the information created by the transmission of the electron beam: bright field imaging, dark field imaging, high angle annular dark-field scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM), energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM).



  • Evaluation of an etching process 
  • Physical failure analysis 
  • EDX profiling of thin film stacks 


Focused Ion Beam

(Tool: FEI Strata 400)

© Fraunhofer IPMS
TEM bright field (left) and TEM bright field zoomed in (right)

Focused Ion Beam is an essential tool in modern physical failure analysis. A finely focused ion beam allows for precise cutting into a sample. This tool is indispensable for the site-specific preparation of TEM lamellae and EBSD/TKD samples. FIB tools nowadays are usually dual-beam machines equipped with both an ion beam column and an electron beam column; hence images with electrons and ions can be taken in parallel. In addition our tool is equipped with a micromanipulator and a platinum - as well as a carbon gas injection system allowing for local deposition of platinum and carbon respectively. As a result the apparatus can furthermore be utilized for nanolithography and circuit modification.



  • Preparation of electron transparent lamellae for TEM or TKD
  • Ion beam imaging

Inline Metrology

Physical and chemical characterization of full wafers with high throughput without affecting the functionality of the wafer dies is a key to monitor the production of semiconductor devices. At Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT we have a number of different in-line metrology tools for the measurement of film thicknesses, sheet resistance, surface composition, chemical binding states, surfaceand sidewall topographies and for defect inspection on 200 and 300 mm wafers.



  • Surface composition wafer-mapping (ThermoFisher Theta300i ARXPS)
  • Profilometry and 3d-AFM (KLA Tencor HRP340 & Bruker Nano X3D)
  • XRD (Bede HR, video system, micro focus X-ray tube)
  • Defect inspection (KLA Tencor SP3 SurfScan & Applied Materials G3E FIB, AMAT Verity CD SEM, NextIn Solutions AEGIS Wafer Inspection System)
  • Film thickness wafer-mapping (KLA Tencor Spectra FX100)
  • Sheet resistivity (EURIS WS3000 & KLA Tencor RS100)


Raman Spectroscopy

(Tool: Renishaw Invia Reflex)

Raman spectroscopy utilizes inelastic scattering of laser light to locally excite and image characteristic vibrational modes in a material. This scattering process involves the excitation or decay of characteristic vibrations of chemical bonds. As a result Raman spectroscopy can be used for the analysis of the orientation, phase and composition of a material as well as or lateral resolved stress and temperature mappings. Our tools allow for a lateral resolution down to 300 nm. Different lasers allow us to vary the surface sensitivity, varying the integration depth from only a few nm to a few micrometer.



  • Stress maps of trenches (top down & cross section)
  • Laterally resolved temperature measurements
  • Lateral resolved phase analysis


Further Information:

Components & Systems

RF Characterization

Data sheet

300 mm Process Catalogue